Document Type : Review Paper


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Collage of Engineering, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Ad-Diwaniyah, Iraq

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, MANIT Bhopal, India



As a result of a large number of diseases due to environmental pollution resulting from emissions and fast energy depletion. Many researchers resorted methods to produce a mixture that can be used as fuel and fight these issues. In this work, a mini review was concluded through previous studies to highlight and investigate the effect of using water ammonia solution on the characteristics of IC engines with special focus on gasoline engines. The main findings showed decreased engine performance because ammonia has a lower calorific value and energy density. also, most of the previous contributions highlighted a significant reduction in CO2 and CO emissions for all loads. Using ammonia solution increased NOx emissions slightly.


  • Z. Zhongming, L. Linong, Y. Xiaona, Z. Wangqiang, L. Wei, Global Energy Review 2021, (2021).
  • G.T. Hashem, M.J.A.-Q.J.E.S. Al-Dawody, Use of LPG in SI engine-a review study, 14 (2021) 54-61.
  • M.S. Edam, M.F.J.A.-Q.J.f.E.S. Al-Dawody, Numerical simulation for the effect of biodiesel addition on the combustion, performance and emissions parameters of single cylinder diesel engine, 12 (2019).
  • M.E. Murad, M.F.J.A.-Q.J.f.E.S. Al-Dawody, Biodiesel Production from Spirulina Microalgae and its impact on Diesel Engine Characteristics-Review, 13 (2020).
  • H. Kim, K.Y. Koo, T.-H.J.J.o.I.M.S. Joung, Environmental Affairs,, Shipping, A study on the necessity of integrated evaluation of alternative marine fuels, 4 (2020) 26-31.
  • R. Lan, J.T. Irvine, S.J.I.J.o.H.E. Tao, Ammonia and related chemicals as potential indirect hydrogen storage materials, 37 (2012) 1482-1494.
  • D. Erdemir, I.J.I.J.o.E.R. Dincer, A perspective on the use of ammonia as a clean fuel: Challenges and solutions, Wiley Online Library, 2021, pp. 4827-4834.
  • C. Zamfirescu, I.J.J.o.P.S. Dincer, Using ammonia as a sustainable fuel, 185 (2008) 459-465.
  • A.J. Reiter, S.-C.J.E. Kong, Fuels, Demonstration of compression-ignition engine combustion using ammonia in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, 22 (2008) 2963-76
  • S.M. Grannell, D.N. Assanis, D.E. Gillespie, S.V. Bohac, Exhaust emissions from a stoichiometric, ammonia and gasoline dual fueled spark ignition engine,  Internal Combustion Engine Division Spring Technical Conference, 2009, pp. 135-141.
  • C. Zamfirescu, I.J.F.p.t. Dincer, Ammonia as a green fuel and hydrogen source for vehicular applications, 90 (2009) 729-737.
  • A.J. Reiter, S.-C.J.F. Kong, Combustion and emissions characteristics of compression-ignition engine using dual ammonia-diesel fuel, 90 (2011) 87-97.
  • C.S. Mørch, A. Bjerre, M.P. Gøttrup, S.C. Sorenson, J.J.f. Schramm, Ammonia/hydrogen mixtures in an SI-engine: Engine performance and analysis of a proposed fuel system, 90 (2011) 854-864.
  • S. Gill, G. Chatha, A. Tsolakis, S.E. Golunski, A.J.I.j.o.h.e. York, Assessing the effects of partially decarbonising a diesel engine by co-fuelling with dissociated ammonia, 37 (2012) 6074-6083.
  • I. Rafiqul, C. Weber, B. Lehmann, A.J.E. Voss, Energy efficiency improvements in ammonia production—perspectives and uncertainties, 30 (2005) 2487-2504.
  • N.J.J.C.b. Vickers, Animal communication: when i’m calling you, will you answer too?, 27 (2017) R713-R715.
  • D. Mishra, A.J.F. Rahman, An experimental study of flammability limits of LPG/air mixtures☆, 82 (2003) 863-866.
  • K. Yamamoto, S. Oohori, H. Yamashita, S.J.P.o.t.C.I. Daido, Simulation on soot deposition and combustion in diesel particulate filter, 32 (2009) 1965-1972.
  • A.J.I.J.A.M.E. Andwari, Azhar., Aziz, AA, Said, MFM, Latiff, ZA, and Ghanaati, A.(2015). Influence of Hot Burned Gas Utilization on the Exhaust Emission Characteristics of A Controlled Auto-Ignition Two-Stroke Cycle Engine, 11  2396-2404.
  • G.R. Emad, M. Khabir, M. Shahbakhsh, The Role of Maritime Logistics in Sustaining the Future of Global Energy: The Case of Hydrogen.
  • Y. Ullal, A.C.J.I.j.o.h.e. Hegde, Electrodeposition and electro-catalytic study of nanocrystalline Ni–Fe alloy, 39 (2014) 10485-10492.
  • O. Herbinet, P. Bartocci, A.G.J.F.C. Dana, On the use of ammonia as a fuel–A perspective, 11 (2022) 100064.
  • A. Yapicioglu, I.J.I.J.o.H.E. Dincer, Performance assesment of hydrogen and ammonia combustion with various fuels for power generators, 43 (2018) 21037-21048.
  • A. Şanlı, I.l.T. Yılmaz, M.J.E. Gumus, Fuels, Experimental evaluation of performance and combustion characteristics in a hydrogen–methane port fueled diesel Engine at different compression ratios, 34 (2019) 2272-2283.
  • C. Guido, M. Alfè, V. Gargiulo, P. Napolitano, C. Beatrice, N.J.E. Del Giacomo, Fuels, Chemical/physical features of particles emitted from a modern automotive dual-fuel methane–diesel engine, 32 (2018) 10154-10162.
  • K.H. Ryu, G. Zacharakis-Jutz, S.-C. Kong, Effects of fuel compositions on diesel engine performance using ammonia-DME mixtures, SAE Technical Paper, 2013.
  • E.S. Starkman, G. James, H.J.S.T. Newhall, Ammonia as a diesel engine fuel: theory and application, (1968) 3193-3212.
  • E.J.J.I.P. Koch, Ammonia–a fuel for motor buses, 31 (1945) 213.
  • Z. Şahin, İ.Z. Akcanca, O.J.F. Durgun, Experimental investigation of the effects of ammonia solution (NH3OH) on engine performance and exhaust emissions of a small diesel engine, 214 (2018) 330-341.
  • P. Dimitriou, R.J.I.J.o.H.E. Javaid, A review of ammonia as a compression ignition engine fuel, 45 (2020) 7098-7118.
  • C. Kurien, M.J.E.C. Mittal, Management, Review on the production and utilization of green ammonia as an alternate fuel in dual-fuel compression ignition engines, 251 (2022) 114990.
  • E. Nadimi, G. Przybyła, D. Emberson, T. Løvås, Ł. Ziółkowski, W.J.I.J.o.E.R. Adamczyk, Effects of using ammonia as a primary fuel on engine performance and emissions in an ammonia/biodiesel dual‐fuel CI engine, 46 (2022) 15347-15361.
  • M. Pyrc, M. Gruca, A. Jamrozik, W. Tutak, R.J.I.J.o.E.R. Juknelevičius, An experimental investigation of the performance, emission and combustion stability of compression ignition engine powered by diesel and ammonia solution (NH4OH), 22 (2021) 2639-2653.
  • A.J.I.J.o.H.E. Boretti, Novel dual fuel diesel-ammonia combustion system in advanced TDI engines, 42 (2017) 7071-7076.
  • K. Ryu, G.E. Zacharakis-Jutz, S.-C.J.A.e. Kong, Performance characteristics of compression-ignition engine using high concentration of ammonia mixed with dimethyl ether, 113 (2014) 488-499.
  • Effect of Ammonia Injection on Performance Characteristics of a Spark-ignition Engine, College of Engineering, Pune, India.
  • C.W. Gross, S.-C.J.F. Kong, Performance characteristics of a compression-ignition engine using direct-injection ammonia–DME mixtures, 103 (2013) 1069-1079.
  • K.J.T.o.t.K.S.o.A.E. Ryu, Combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions in spark-ignition engine using gasoline-ammonia, 21 (2013) 155-165.
  • F. Salek, M. Babaie, A. Shakeri, S.V. Hosseini, T. Bodisco, A.J.A.S. Zare, Numerical study of engine performance and emissions for port injection of ammonia into a gasoline\ethanol dual-fuel spark ignition engine, 11 (2021) 1441.
  • S. Frigo, R.J.I.J.o.H.E. Gentili, Analysis of the behaviour of a 4-stroke Si engine fuelled with ammonia and hydrogen, 38 (2013) 1607-1615.
  • C. Lhuillier, P. Brequigny, F. Contino, C. Mounaïm-Rousselle, Performance and emissions of an ammonia-fueled SI engine with hydrogen enrichment,  14th International Conference on Engines & Vehicles, 2019.
  • E.S. Starkman, H. Newhall, R. Sutton, T. Maguire, L.J.S.T. Farbar, Ammonia as a spark ignition engine fuel: theory and application, (1967) 765-784.
  • R. Liu, D.S.-K. Ting, M.D. Checkel, Ammonia as a fuel for SI engine, SAE Technical Paper, 2003.