Document Type : Research Paper


Centre for Advanced Composite Materials (CACM), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia


This study aimed to investigate the heat transfer behavior of an Al2O3-water nanofluid within a coil-agitated tank. The experiment utilized Al2O3-water nanofluids with varying volume concentrations, namely 0.2 vol%, 0.3 vol%, and 0.4 vol%. Two different cooling water flow rates, specifically 1.8 and 2.2 liters/min, were employed during the investigation. The propeller speed ranged from 2 to 12 (rps), and the temperature spanned from 30 to 80 °C. The findings revealed that the heat transfer coefficient of the nanofluids exceeded that of the base water. Moreover, it increased with higher volume concentrations, reaching its peak at 0.4 vol% with an average rise of approximately ±77.2%. Additionally, the heat transfer coefficient demonstrated an increase of about ±19.8% when the temperature was elevated to 80 °C and approximately ±11.9% when the propeller speed was raised to 12 rps. Comparing the two distinct flow rates, it was observed that the heat transfer coefficient rose with decreasing flow rate to 1.8 liters per minute, exhibiting an average enhancement of approximately ±13.6%.


  • Sivashanmugam, P. and H. Mothilal, Experimental heat transfer behavior of graphite–water microfluid in a coiled agitated vessel. Heat Transfer—Asian Research, 2018. 47(3): p. 492-506.
  • Devendiran, D.K. and V.A. Amirtham, A review on preparation, characterization, properties and applications of nanofluids. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2016. 60: p. 21-40.
  • Perarasu, T., M. Arivazhagan, and P. Sivashanmugam, Experimental and CFD heat transfer studies of Al2O3-water nanofluid in a coiled agitated vessel equipped with propeller. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2013. 21(11): p. 1232-1243.
  • Perarasu, V., M. Arivazhagan, and P. Sivashanmugam, Heat transfer of TiO2/water nanofluid in a coiled agitated vessel with propeller. Journal of hydrodynamics, 2012. 24(6): p. 942-950.
  • Maddah, H., et al., Experimental study of Al2O3/water nanofluid turbulent heat transfer enhancement in the horizontal double pipes fitted with modified twisted tapes. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 2014. 78: p. 1042-1054.
  • Rozita, Y., R. Brydson, and A. Scott. An investigation of commercial gamma-Al2O3 nanoparticles. in Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2010. IOP Publishing.
  • Perarasu, V., M. Arivazhagan, and P. Sivashanmugam, Heat transfer characteristics of TiO2/water nanofluid in a coiled agitated vessel provided with disk turbine agitator. Chemical Engineering Communications, 2013. 200(6): p. 783-797.
  • Alam, T. and M.-H. Kim, A comprehensive review on single phase heat transfer enhancement techniques in heat exchanger applications. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2018. 81: p. 813-839.
  • Atashrouz, S., M. Mozaffarian, and G. Pazuki, Viscosity and rheological properties of ethylene glycol+ water+ Fe 3 O 4 nanofluids at various temperatures: Experimental and thermodynamics modeling. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2016. 33: p. 2522-2529.
  • Michael, J.J. and S. Iniyan, Performance analysis of a copper sheet laminated photovoltaic thermal collector using copper oxide–water nanofluid. Solar Energy, 2015. 119: p. 439-451.
  • Yu, W., H. Xie, and W. Chen, Experimental investigation on thermal conductivity of nanofluids containing graphene oxide nanosheets. Journal of Applied Physics, 2010. 107(9): p. 094317.
  • Yu, W., et al., Significant thermal conductivity enhancement for nanofluids containing graphene nanosheets. Physics Letters A, 2011. 375(10): p. 1323-1328.
  • Suresh, S., et al., Synthesis of Al2O3–Cu/water hybrid nanofluids using two step method and its thermo physical properties. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 2011. 388(1-3): p. 41-48.
  • Kakaç, S. and A. Pramuanjaroenkij, Single-phase and two-phase treatments of convective heat transfer enhancement with nanofluids–A state-of-the-art review. International journal of thermal sciences, 2016. 100: p. 75-97.
  • Guo, Z.Y., et al., Effectiveness–thermal resistance method for heat exchanger design and analysis. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 2010. 53(13-14): p. 2877-2884.
  • Raja, M., R. Arunachalam, and S. Suresh, Experimental studies on heat transfer of alumina/water nanofluid in a shell and tube heat exchanger with wire coil insert. International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, 2012. 7(1): p. 16-23.
  • Abbas, S.A. and H.I. Dawood. Experimental investigation of heat transfer behavior of Al2O3-water nanofluid in a coiled agitated vessel at different flowrate. in AIP Conference Proceedings. 2022. AIP Publishing LLC.