Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Ad-Diwaniyah, 58001, Iraq

2 Laboratory of Energy in Arid Region (ENERGARID), Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Tahri Mohamed Bechar, P.O. Box 417, Bechar 08000, Algeria



Numerical investigation of mixed convective in a vented square cavity with fin. The horizontal walls are adiabatic, while the left and right walls are at hot and cold temperatures, respectively. The fluid inlet to the cavity from the lower left open area, and exit from the upper right open area. In this study, a finite element scheme is employed. The analysis is done for specific Prandtl number, Reynolds number, fin length, Richardson number, and the location of the fin. The finding indicates that the increases when high the location of the fin is, the increase at the maximum height of this fin location is estimated to be 17% due to an increase in the area of fluid flow on the hot wall caused by rising convective. The highest heat transfer occurs when the fin length is equal to 0.6 at the location.


  • M.M. Rashidi, I. Mahariq, M. Alhuyi Nazari, O. Accouche, M.M. Bhatti, Comprehensive review on exergy analysis of shell and tube heat exchangers, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 147(22) (2022) 12301-12311DOI:
  • W. Liu, Y. Bie, T. Xu, A. Cichon, G. Królczyk, Z. Li, Heat transfer enhancement of latent heat thermal energy storage in solar heating system: A state-of-the-art review, Journal of Energy Storage, 46 (2022) 103727 DOI:
  • G. Chen, Y. Tang, Z. Wan, G. Zhong, H. Tang, J. Zeng, Heat transfer characteristic of an ultra-thin flat plate heat pipe with surface-functional wicks for cooling electronics, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 100 (2019) 12-19DOI:
  • B. Hiba, F. Redouane, W. Jamshed, C. Ahamed Saleel, S. Suriya Uma Devi, M. Prakash, K.S. Nisar, V. Vijayakumar, M.R. Eid, A novel case study of thermal and streamline analysis in a grooved enclosure filled with (Ag–MgO/Water) hybrid nanofluid: Galerkin FEM, Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, 28 (2021) 101372 DOI:
  • B. Al-Muhja, K. Al-Farhany, Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Baffle Inclination Angle on Nanofluid Natural Convection Heat Transfer in A Square Enclosure, Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences, 12 (2019) 61-71 DOI:
  • K. Al-Farhany, B. Al-Muhja, L. Karuppusamy, U. Periyasamy, F. Ali, I. Sarris, Analysis of Convection Phenomenon in Enclosure Utilizing Nanofluids with Baffle Effects, Energies, 15 (2022) 6615DOI:
  • K. Al-Farhany, B. Al-Muhja, F. Ali, U. Khan, A. Zaib, Z. Raizah, A.M. Galal, The Baffle Length Effects on the Natural Convection in Nanofluid-Filled Square Enclosure with Sinusoidal Temperature, in:  Molecules, 2022.
  • M. Almaliki, K. Al-Farhany, I. Sarris, Heat Transfer in an Inclined Rectangular Cavity Filled with Hybrid Nanofluid Attached to a Vertical Heated Wall Integrated with PCM: An Experimental Study, Symmetry, 14 (2022) 2181DOI:
  • K. Al-Farhany, M.F. Al-dawody, D.A. Hamzah, W. Al-Kouz, Z. Said, Numerical investigation of natural convection on Al2O3–water porous enclosure partially heated with two fins attached to its hot wall: under the MHD effects, Applied Nanoscience,  (2021) DOI:
  • K. Al-Farhany, A. Abdulkadhim, H.K. Hamzah, F.H. Ali, A. Chamkha, MHD effects on natural convection in a U-shaped enclosure filled with nanofluid-saturated porous media with two baffles, Progress in Nuclear Energy, 145 (2022) 104136 DOI:
  • F. Selimefendigil, H. Öztop, Effects of an adiabatic inclined fin on the mixed convection heat transfer in a square cavity, Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics, 14 (2014) 268-275DOI:
  • S. Sivasankaran, K. Janagi, Numerical Study on Mixed Convection Flow and Energy Transfer in an Inclined Channel Cavity: Effect of Baffle Size, in:  Mathematical and Computational Applications, 2022.
  • R. Velkennedy, J. Jeseema Nisrin, K. Kalidasan, P. Rajeshkanna, Numerical investigation of convective heat transfer in a rectangular vented cavity with two outlets and cold partitions, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 129 (2021) 105659DOI:
  • Z.K. Radhi, Numerical study of mixed convection heat transfer through double square cavity connected with each other, Al-Qadisiya Journal For Engineering Sciences, 4 (2011).
  • A. Abdulsahib, K. Al-Farhany, Experimental Investigation of Mixed Convection on a Rotating Circular Cylinder in a Cavity Filled With Nanofluid and Porous Media, Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences, 13 (2020) 99-108 DOI:
  • F. Selimefendigil, A. Chamkha, MHD mixed convection of nanofluid in a three-dimensional vented cavity with surface corrugation and inner rotating cylinder, International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, 30 (2019) DOI:
  • Z.A. Alhussain, Mixed convective flow in a multiple port ventilation square cavity with insulated baffle, Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, 30 (2022) 101785DOI:
  • H. Shaker, M. Abbasalizadeh, S. Khalilarya, S.Y. Motlagh, Two-phase modeling of the effect of non-uniform magnetic field on mixed convection of magnetic nanofluid inside an open cavity, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 207 (2021) 106666 DOI:
  • L. Wang, W. Wang, C. Yang, D. Liu, F.-Y. Zhao, Mixed convection and heat flow characteristics in a lid-driven enclosure with porous fins: Full numerical modeling and parametric investigations, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications, 77 (2019) 1-30 DOI:
  • M. Ali, R. Akhter, M.M. Alam, M. Miah, Magnetic-Mixed Convection in Nanofluid-Filled Cavity Containing Baffles and Rotating Hollow-Cylinders with Roughness Components, Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2022 (2022) 1-25 DOI:
  • O. Çiçek, A.C. Baytaş, A numerical investigation of the particle behaviors and entropy generation in mixed convection inside a vented enclosure, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 185 (2023) 108058  DOI:
  • H.A. Dhahad, G.F. Al-Sumaily, W.H. Alawee, M.C. Thompson, Aiding and Opposing Re-circulating Mixed Convection Flows in a Square Vented Enclosure, Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, 19 (2020) 100577 DOI:
  • M.A. Ismael, H.F. Jasim, Role of the fluid-structure interaction in mixed convection in a vented cavity, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 135 (2018) 190-202  DOI:
  • H. Saleh, K. Naganthran, I. Hashim, M. Ghalambaz, R. Nazar, Role of fluid-structure interaction in free convection in square open cavity with double flexible oscillating fins, Alexandria Engineering Journal, 61(2) (2022) 1217-1234   DOI:
  • M. Shahabadi, S.A.M. Mehryan, M. Ghalambaz, M. Ismael, Controlling the natural convection of a non-Newtonian fluid using a flexible fin, Applied Mathematical Modelling, 92 (2021) 669-686  DOI:
  • M. Sathiyamoorthy, A. J. Chamkha, Analysis of natural convection in a square cavity with a thin partition for linearly heated side walls, International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, 24(5) (2014) 1057-1072  DOI:
  • M. Rahman, M.A. Alim, S. Saha, M.K. Chowdhury, Mixed Convection in a Vented Square Cavity with a Heat Conducting Horizontal Solid Circular Cylinder, Journal of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, 5(2) (2009) 37-46 DOI: