Document Type : Review Paper


1 Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Al-Qadisiyah 58001, Iraq

2 Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Ad'Diwaniyah 58001, Iraq.



In this paper highlights the most significant recent developments in scientific study on Heat sinks are thermal management components made of materials with sufficient thermal conductivity qualities. Due to the increase in operating power and speed as well as the general reduction in system size, the issues of heat removal and temperature management have taken on increasing importance in these studies. Changing the geometry of extended surfaces, the material from which they were made, the working fluid that ran over them and or the dimension of the channel, are some of the subcategories in which studies have been conducted. The current review addresses the main recent findings in the forced convection heat transfer happened at laminar flow inside small scale diameters channels. The recent studies indicated a remarkable enhancement with the change of Re, D and internal geometry of channel. The configuration of flow passages also adopted as a different passive technique to enhance thermal fluid flow.