Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Architecture, College of Engineering, Salahaddin University,Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq



Density, as a spatial concept, can be used to predict and manage how land is used. It also plays a role in determining how much capacity is present within a given area. Due to the rapidly growing population in the Kurdistan region, one of the major issues is housing. Over the past ten years, the Kurdistan Investment Board has started the construction of numerous residential complexes by investor companies. This study's objective is to evaluate the housing projects carried out by the investor sector to assess the population and housing density and land use balance evaluate the relation of green area with neighbourhood components. For the current study, five residential complexes were invested in (Zeitun city, Italian I village, Global city, Aynda II, Andazyaran city). Since the data are numerical, the applied methodology is quantitative. According to the findings, the net population density of Andazyaran city is higher than the Iraqi standard however the gross population density of Andazyaran city is over moderate levels of single-family housing standards. Gross accommodation density is showing same problems including Aynda II, While Zeitun City's land use balance is below average, Global City and Aynda II are in line with Iraqi standards. Indicators show low commitments regarding density parameters of more than one third of cases to updated housing standards.


  • Gorden, I., Mace, A. and Whitehead, C. (2016) ‘Defining, Measuring and Implementing Density Standards in London’, LSE London, (July). Available at:
  • Boyko, C. T. and Cooper, R. (2011) ‘Clarifying and re-conceptualizing density’, Progress in Planning. Elsevier Ltd, 76(1), pp. 1–61.
  • AG Reporter (2013) 'Erbil Iraq real estate market shows potential', Https://
  • Chan, E.H., Tang, B.S. and Wong, W.S., 2002. Density control and the quality of living space: a case study of private housing development in Hong Kong. Habitat international, 26(2),pp.159-175.
  • Gordon, I.R., Mace, A. and Whitehead, C., 2016. Defining, measuring and implementing density standards in London: London plan density research project 1. 2016 Density review.
  • Asfour, O.S. and Alshawaf, E.S., 2015. Effect of housing density on energy efficiency of buildings located in hot climates. Energy and Buildings, 91, pp.131-138.
  • Mousavinia, S.F., Pourdeihimi, S. and Madani, R., 2019. Housing layout, perceived density and social interactions in gated communities: Mediational role of territoriality. Sustainable Cities and Society, 51, p.1016.
  • Alexander, E.R., 1993. Density measures: A review and analysis. Journal of architectural and planning research, pp.181-202.
  • Olowu, F.Y., Jaiyeoba, E.B., Agbabiaka, H.I. and Daramola, O.J., 2019. Spatial analysis of the factors influencing housing quality for renters in a traditional Nigerian city. International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis.
  • Chan, Y.K., 1999. Density, crowding, and factors intervening in their relationship: Evidence from a hyper-dense metropolis. Social Indicators Research48, pp.103-124.
  • Kupke, V., Rossini, P. and McGreal, S., 2012. Measuring the impact of higher density housing development. Property Management.
  • Lockwood, T. and Coffee, N. (2006), “Residential living structure as a basis for the spatial delineation of residential submarkets”, Pacific Rim Property Research Journal, Vol. 12, pp. 350-66.
  • Dixon, J. and Dupuis, A.N.N., 2003. Urban intensification in Auckland, New Zealand: A challenge for new urbanism. Housing Studies, 18(3), pp.353-368.
  • Evans, A. and Unsworth, R., 2012. Housing densities and consumer choice. Urban Studies49(6), pp.1163-1177.
  • Wu, L., 2001. Introduction to Human Settlements Science [M]. China Building Industry Press, China, pp.1-39.
  • Li, X.M., Bai, Z.Z., Tian, S.Z., Yang, J. and Guo, Y.J., 2020. Human settlement assessment in Jinan from a facility resource perspective. Sage Open, 10(2), p.2158244020924056.
  • Dehring, C. and Dunse, N., 2006. Housing density and the effect of proximity to public open space in Aberdeen, Scotland. Real Estate Economics, 34(4), pp.553-566.
  • H., Tang, B.S. and Wong, W.S., 2002. Density control and the quality of living space: a case study of private housing development in Hong Kong. Habitat international, 26(2), pp.159-175.
  • Hopkin, C., Spearpoint, M., Hopkin, D. and Wang, Y., 2019. Residential occupant density distributions derived from English Housing Survey data. Fire safety journal, 104, pp.147-158
  • Ali, J. S., Mustafa, F. (2023). 'Active workplace – Association between workplace layout and physical activity among employees: A cross-sectional study', Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences, 16(1), pp. 14-20. doi: 10.30772/qjes.v16i1.842