Document Type : Review Paper


1 iCollege of Engineering/ Mechanical Engineering- Al- Qadisiyah University, Al-Diwaniyah +964, Iraq

2 College of Engineering/ Mechanical Engineering, Al- Qadisiyah University, Al-Diwaniyah +964, Iraq



In reality, there are a number of tiny contact asperities on the contact surface, which may be seen at the micro/ nano scales. The total mechanical behavior is the product of all asperities that are involved during the contact. There are still a lot of unresolved issues in the study of contact and dry friction behavior of rough surfaces because of the variety of surface topography, complexity of the contact scale, and nonlinearity of the constitutive materials. The complexity of the friction mechanism and its misunderstood nature pose significant challenges in this study. This paper provides a comprehensive review of typical dry friction behaviors observed at the micro- and nanoscales. The significance of surface roughness, the role of contact mechanics, and the impact of experimental and theoretical approaches in modeling and simulation have been examined at this study. Additionally, the manuscript highlights the crucial role of proximal probing techniques, particularly the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) technique.