Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Architecture, College of Engineering, Salahaddin University - Erbil, Erbil 4401, Iraq



From ancient Greece till the present, the golden ratio has been considered one of the most significant criteria of beauty in art and architecture. Architectural forms are part of the visual language that is bound by the rules of geometry and proportion. This study aims to identify the extent to which contemporary mosques in the city of Erbil utilize the golden ratio in the aesthetics of their facades. The research attempts to answer the question: was the golden ratio implemented in designing the facade of contemporary mosques in Erbil? The study adopted a mixed quantitative and qualitative analysis method. To achieve the study's aim and answer its questions, six mosques built in the last decade in Erbil were selected. Qualitatively, survey and documentation followed. Quantitatively, Phi matrix software, AutoCAD, and graphic software were applied as a mathematical approach. The study concluded that only one case used the golden ratio in the design of its façade by 100%, while it did not exceed 75% in most other mosques. The study draws the attention of designers and architects in the field of mosque architecture to the adoption of the golden ratio in the designs of mosque facades because of its role in achieving the aesthetic aspect.


  • Hossein Askari and K. Binti Dola, “Influence of Building Façade Visual Elements on Its Historical Image Influence of Building Façade Visual Elements on Its Historical Image: Case of Kuala Lumpur City, Malaysia,” Journal of Design and Built Environment, vol. 5, no. December, pp. 49–59, 2009. Availabile at:
  • Dewiyanti and S. O. Sari, “Appraising the Balance of Building Facade over the Proportion Theory,” in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2019.
  • Mahdipour and F. M. Saradj, “The Application of Golden Proportion in the Façades & Ornaments of Quadruple Vaulted Porticos of Jami Mosque in Isfahan, Iran,” Journal of Civil Engineering and Urbanism., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 97–101, 2012. Available:
  • Goudarzi, M. Bemanian, and M. Leylian, “Geometrical analysis of architectural drawnings in the Shah-mosque Isfahan,” Curved and Layered Structures,vol.7,no.1,pp. 68–79, 2020.
  • M. Dabbour, ‘Geometric proportions: The underlying structure of design process for Islamic geometric patterns’, Frontiers of Architectural Research, 1(4) (2012) 380–391.
  • Naseri and Z. Amini Farsani, ‘An investigation into geometric ratios of the sunken courtyards in traditional iranian houses (a field study on Yazd and Kashan)’, Journal of Architecture and Urbanism, 46(1) (2022) 58–67.
  • Abdelsalam and M. Ibrahim, ‘Fractal Dimension of Islamic Architecture: The case of the Mameluke Madrasas: Al-Sultan Hassan Madrasa’, Article in Gazi University Journal of Science,32(1) (2019) 27–37. Available:
  • Aljubori and C. Alalouch, ‘Finding harmony in chaos: The role of the golden rectangle in deconstructive architecture’, Archnet-IJAR, 12( 3) (2018) 183–205.
  • W. Handayani and D. W. Soewardikoen, ‘Exploration of Golden Section Proportion Potency in Mosque’, in 4th Bandung Creative Movement International Conference on CreativeIndustries, Atlantis Press, (2017).
  • Shemesh, R. Talmon, O. Karp, I. Amir, M. Bar, and Y. J. Grobman, ‘Affective response to architecture – investigating human reaction to spaces with different geometry’, Archit Sci Rev,60(2) (2017) 116–125.
  • Ghouchani, F. Gholizde, and H. Sobouti, ‘Geometric Patterns Used in the Architecture of Kaboud Mosque in Tabriz, Iran’, Gazi University Journal of Science, 36(2) (2022).
  • Wafaei Baneh, B. Wafaei Baneh, A. Osman, O. Mostafapour, and Z. R. Bradosty, ‘Regeneration and documentation of historic geometric Islamic patterns via HBIM: a case study of Choli minaret, Kurdistan Region’, International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, 41(2) (2021) 347–363.
  • A. Ali and F. A. Mustafa, ‘Mosque Typo-Morphological Classification for Pattern Recognition Using Shape Grammar Theory and Graph-Based Techniques’, Buildings, 13(3) (2023) 741.
  • M. Hamdani, A. Suprapti, and S. Rukayah, ‘Architecture of the Kajoran Cultural Heritage Mosque Complex and Community Life Surrounding’, Journal of Islamic Architecture, 79(2) (2022), 270–278.
  • D. K. Ching, Architecture: Form, Space, and Order. Wiley, 2014. Available:
  • S. Ismail, ‘The Influence of Islamic Political Ideology on The Design of State Mosques in West Malaysia’, Doctor of philosophy, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia, (2008). Available:
  • M. Salama, ‘The role of Sacred Geometry in forming Islamic art’, Architecture, Art & Humanistic Science, 4(14) (2019) 13–35.
  • A. Adnan, R. N. Raja Shahminan, and F. Ahmad, ‘Golden Ratio Assessments of Aesthetic Value and Proportion on Existing Minbar at The State Mosques In Johore’, Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Environment Management, 7(28) (2022) 134–144.
  • Khajeh Pour and J. Soheili, ‘Surveying and Categorizing the Proportion Values of Various Types of Safavid Dynasty1’s Buildings’, International Journal of Architecture and Urban Development, 5(1) (2015) 61–68.Availabile
  • Jamil, ‘Role of a Dome-Less Mosque in Conserving the Religious and Traditional Values of Muslims: An Innovative Architecture of Shah Faisal Mosque, Islamabad’, International Journal of Architecture, Engineering and Construction, 6(2) (2017) 40–45.
  • Mahmood Haj Ksim and E. Hani Al-Allaf, ‘An Assessment of the Impact of Extension on Preservation of The Heritage Mosques in Mousl Old City’, Al- Rafidain Engineering, 21(3) (2013) 64–81.
  • A. Ali and F. A. Mustafa, ‘The state-of-the-art knowledge, techniques, and simulation programs for quantifying human visual comfort in mosque buildings: A systematic review’, Ain Shams Engineering Journal,14(9) (2023) 102128.
  • H. Masridin and A. S. Ismail, ‘Critical Regionalism Approach for Djami Mosque Design Towards the Aesthetics of Sustainability’, Journal of Islamic Architecture,7(2) (2022) 220–232.
  • F. Al-mansoor, ‘Universal Mosque / Masjid Design’, IOS Press, 229(3) (2016).
  • Saleh and A. Al-Ataabi, ‘The Column in Arabic Islamic Architecture (Analysis Study for Dimensions and Connatations)’, Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 41–72, 2014.
  • Iqbal, ‘Mosque in The Valley: A Space For Spiritual Gathering & Cultural Learning’, Master, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 2015.
  • Ali, A.; Mustafa, F.A. ‘Mosque Morphological Analysis: The Impact of Indoor Spatial–Volumetric Visibility on Worshipers’ Visual Comfort’, Sustainability ,15(13) (2023) 10376.
  • Younis and H. Kasim, ‘Functional performance of octagonal plan mosques-analysis of octagonal plan mosques in Mosul’, Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 259–267, Dec. 2023, https://doi: 10.30772/qjes.2023.143868.1041
  • Mojtahedzadeh and Z. Namavar, ‘Golden Section in the Persian-Islamic Architecture Case study : Hasht Behesht Palace , Isfahan , Iran’, Mathematics Interdisciplinary Research,4(3) (2019) 107–127.
  • Wahyu Handayani and D. Widiatmoko Soewardikoen, ‘Exploration of Golden Section Proportion Potency in Mosque’, 2018.
  • Boussora and S. Mazouz, ‘The use of the golden section in the great mosque at kairouan’, Nexus Netw J, 6(1) (2004)7–16.
  • A. Mustafa and Z. K. Ismael, ‘A typological Study of the Historical Mosques in Erbil City’, Sulaimani Journal for Engineering Sciences, 6(3) (2019) 11–28, 2019.
  • Cheikh Zouaoui, S. Bousmaha, and S. Chergui, ‘The implicit parameters of the architectural aesthetic of Saoudi mosque in Chlef’, Transylvanian Review, XXVII (50) (2020) 15460–15470. Available:
  • Ahmed and M. A. Zeina, ‘The Golden ratio and its impact on Architectural design’, International Design Journal, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 77–90, 2022.
  • A. Mustafa and S. Jamal Rashid, ‘Studying the Human Scale and Proportionality of Mosque’, Journal of Islamic Architecture, 5(3) (2019). jia.v5i3.5304
  • B. Thapa and R. Thapa, ‘The Relation of Golden Ratio, Mathematics and Aesthetics’, Journal of the Institute of Engineering, 14(1) (2018).
  • Evita Chatharina Josephine, ‘The study of geometric forms, proportion and scale of heritage buildings due to architectural theory’, in 8th International Conference on Architecture Research and Design, AR+DC, 2016, pp. 265–272.Available:
  • Gangwar, ‘Principles and Applications of Geometric Proportions in Architectural Design’, Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Technology,4(3) (2017)171–17.