Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Al-Qadisiyah University, Iraq

2 Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Lulea University of Technology, Sweden

3 Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Wasit

4 Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Al-Qadisiyah University, Iraq



In this research, an assessment was conducted for several materials to examine their efficiency for sorption phosphate and their potential use as filter media. This work focuses on seeking materials that can achieve high, rapid, and robust phosphate retention. To assess the phosphate removal efficiency, batch-mode testing was conducted. The capability of the selected materials for effectively removal the phosphate is largely influenced by their inherent properties. Therefore, this research determines the effectiveness of the material by examining its physical and chemical characteristics. The selection method for these materials was guided by the understanding that the sorbents that have the most effective behavior for phosphate tend to contain easily soluble Ca/Mg compounds or Fe/Al hydroxides. The findings of the batch experiments demonstrated that material such as Bio ash (Bio-A) exhibited superior phosphate removal performance throughout the entire duration of the experiments. In contrast, materials calcium carbonate (C-C) and conventional silica (C-S) displayed relatively poor removal performance compared to Bio-A.


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