Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Mechanical Engineering, Collage of Engineering, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq



In the current study, to enhance the characteristics and forced convection performance in the horizontal annular in the case of the presence of porous material and without porous material, energy analyses were performed. Many types of porous material, porosities, and diameters were used. Computational fluid dynamics was used to simulate an annuli tube in case of the presence of porous material and without porous material by utilization of ANSYS FLUENT software 17.2. The working fluid utilized was water with Reynolds number from 100-500 and constant wall heat flux at 150 kW/m2. Two types of porous media glass and steel balls, two different porosities (0.6 and 0.7), and two different porous material diameters (12 and 24mm) were utilized. Investigations occurred under the study state for studying heat transfer properties and flow of fluid in the annuli tube. The energy analysis outcomes showed that there is a relationship between Nu and Reynolds number. The highest enhancement of Nu number happened at 12mm diameter and 0.6 porosity for bolls of glass and 0.7 for bolls of steel. The pressure drop rising occurs with the rising of Re for all cases and the diameter of 12mm gives the maximum pressure drop for both steel and glass pellets and the uppermost pressure drop occurs at a porosity of 0.6. As compared with those in the annulus in the absence of a glass sphere as porous material at the same ball volumes.


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