Document Type : Research Paper


1 Roads and Transport Department, College of Engineering, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Al Diwaniyah, Iraq

2 Technical Institute of Babylon, Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University (ATU), Iraq

3 School of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 5UG, UK.



Urbanization has led to the damage of infrastructure due to floods and water accumulation on roads and sidewalks. To address this problem, pervious concrete was designed to drain water smoothly. However, pervious concrete has certain drawbacks, such as brittleness and poor tensile strength. To overcome these shortcomings, it is reinforced with fiber. Polypropylene fibers are commonly used for this purpose. On the other hand, managing waste plastic is a major problem as it has a significant environmental impact and requires large areas for landfills. Waste rope fibers (WRF) are among these wastes. There have been very limited investigations on the use of WRF in pervious concrete. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effect of polypropylene (PP) fibers and waste rope fibers (WRF) on the mechanical and structural properties of pervious concrete. PP and WRF fibers were added in proportions of 0.25%, 0.5%, and 0.75% by volume of concrete. A range of tests (compressive strength, tensile strength, density, permeability, load-deflection behavior, and ductility) were conducted to evaluate the resulting concrete. The results indicated that although the permeability was decreased by adding fibers, the fibers significantly improved the mechanical and structural properties of pervious concrete. The highest values for compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and ultimate load were 83.4%, 72.4%, and 89.62% for PP fibers-based mixtures, while they were 49.9%, 41.9%, and 102.83% for mixtures made with WRF at an addition rate of 0.5% for both types of fibers. The results also demonstrated that the existence of fibers improved the ductility of the concrete, which means that WRF can be used successfully in producing eco-friendly pervious concrete with better performance than the control specimen.


  • Wu, J.; Thompson, J. Quantifying impervious surface changes using time series planimetric data from 1940 to 2011 in four central Iowa cities, USA. Urban Plan. 2013, 120, 34–47, DOI:
  • Adresi, M.; Yamani, A.; Karimaei Tabarestani, M.; Rooholamini, H. A comprehensive review on pervious concrete. Build. Mater. 2023, 407, 133308, doi:
  • Huang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Sun, Y.; Ren, J.; Zhao, Z.; Zhang, J. Evaluation of pore size distribution and permeability reduction behavior in pervious concrete. Build. Mater. 2021, 290, 123228,
  • AlShareedah, O.; Nassiri, S. Pervious concrete mixture optimization, physical, and mechanical properties and pavement design: A review. Clean. Prod. 2021, 288, 125095.
  • Sandoval, G.F.B.; Pieralisi, R. Sustainable aggregate impact on pervious concrete abrasion resistance. Results Eng. 2023, 20, 101384,
  • Elango, K.S.; Gopi, R.; Saravanakumar, R.; Rajeshkumar, V.; Vivek, D.; Raman, S.V. Properties of pervious concrete – A state of the art review. Today Proc. 2021, 45, 2422–2425.
  • Adil, G.; Kevern, J.T.; Mann, D. Influence of silica fume on mechanical and durability of pervious concrete. Build. Mater. 2020, 247, 118453, doi:
  • Wu, H.; Huang, B.; Shu, X.; Dong, Q. Laboratory evaluation of abrasion resistance of portland cement pervious concrete. Mater. Civ. Eng. 2011, 23, 697–702, doi:
  • Li, J.; Xia, J.; Di Sarno, L.; Gong, G. Fiber utilization in pervious concrete: Review on manufacture and properties. Build. Mater. 2023, 406, 133372, doi:
  • Chavana, P.; Patareb, D.; Waghc, M. Enhancement of pervious concrete properties by using polypropylene fiber. J. Eng. Res. Gen. Sci. 2019, 7, 17–25.
  • Furkan Ozel, B.; Sakallı, Ş.; Şahin, Y. The effects of aggregate and fiber characteristics on the properties of pervious concrete. Build. Mater. 2022, 356, 129294, doi:
  • Wu, J.; Hu, L.; Hu, C.; Wang, Y.; Zhou, J.; Li, X. Impact of Polypropylene Fiber on the Mechanical and Physical Properties of Pervious Concrete: An Experimental Investigation. Buildings 2023, 13, 1966
  • Almohana, A.I.; Abdulwahid, M.Y.; Galobardes, I.; Mushtaq, J.; Almojil, S.F. Producing sustainable concrete with plastic waste: A review. Challenges 2022, 9, 100626
  • Ali, T.K.M.; Hilal, N.; Faraj, R.H.; Al-Hadithi, A.I. Properties of eco-friendly pervious concrete containing polystyrene aggregates reinforced with waste PET fibers. Infrastruct. Solut. 2020, 5, 1–16
  • Toghroli, A.; Mehrabi, P.; Shariati, M.; Trung, N.T.; Jahandari, S.; Rasekh, H. Evaluating the use of recycled concrete aggregate and pozzolanic additives in fiber-reinforced pervious concrete with industrial and recycled fibers. Build. Mater. 2020, 252, 118997
  • H. Al-Humeidawi. Utilization of waste plastic and recycled concrete aggregate in the production of hot mix asphalt. Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences. 2014, 7, 4, pp. 322–330.   
  • A. Abdullah Al-Obaidi. The assessment of using fiber produced from plastic broom bristles on the impact property of normal-weight concrete slabs. Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences. 2023, 16, 4, pp. 268–272 10.30772/qjes.2023.180346
  • Abdulridha, S.Q.; Nasr, M.S.; Al-Abbas, B.H.; Hasan, Z.A. Mechanical and structural properties of waste rope fibers-based concrete: An experimental study. Case Stud. Constr. Mater. 2022, 16, e00964
  • Nasr, M.S.; Shubbar, A.; Hashim, T.M.; Abadel, A.A. Properties of a Low-Carbon Binder-Based Mortar Made with Waste LCD Glass and Waste Rope (Nylon) Fibers. Processes 2023, 11, 1533
  • Z. Abeer, Z. A. Hasan, A. B. Karim, D. A. Hassan, and D. N. Jabr, “Eco-friendly concrete produced with recycled materials,” IOP Conf Ser Earth Environ Sci. 2023, 1232, 1, p. 012045. doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/1232/1/012045
  • S. En, 197-1: 2011, Cement, Composition, Specifications and Conformity Criteria for Common Cements. London, England: British Standard Institution (BSI), 2011.
  • Iraq Standard Specification (IQS) No.45 1984 Natural sources of aggregate used in building and concrete, Baghdad, 13p.
  • Messer, K., Fahem, A., T. Guthai, A., P. Singh, R. (2022). 'The experimental methods and elastic properties of shale bedding planes materials state-of-the-art review', Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences, 15(2), pp. 126-130.
  • Fahem, A.F., Thumbalam Guthai, A. & Singh, R.P. Full-Field Strain Measurement Integrated with Two Dimension Regression Analysis to Evaluate the Bi-Modulus Elastic Properties of Isotropic and Transversely Isotropic Materials. Exp Mech64, 53–71 (2024).
  • ASTM C496 Standard Test Method for Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens; ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2011
  • Liu, H.; Luo, G.; Wei, H.; Yu, H. Strength, permeability, and freeze-thaw durability of pervious concrete with different aggregate sizes, porosities, and water-binder ratios. Sci. 2018, 8, 1217
  • doi:
  • ACI Committee 522. 2010 Specification for Pervious Concrete Pavement American Concrete Institute.
  • Al-Hadithi, A.I.; Noaman, A.T.; Mosleh, W.K. Mechanical properties and impact behavior of PET fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SCC). Struct. 2019, 224, 111021. doi:
  • Afroughsabet, V.; Ozbakkaloglu, T. Mechanical and durability properties of high-strength concrete containing steel and polypropylene fibers. Build. Mater. 2015, 94, 73–82. doi:
  • Akand, L.; Yang, M.; Wang, X. Effectiveness of chemical treatment on polypropylene fibers as reinforcement in pervious concrete. Build. Mater. 2018, 163, 32–39, doi:
  • Mohammed, A.A.; Rahim, A.A.F. Experimental behavior and analysis of high strength concrete beams reinforced with PET waste fiber. Build. Mater. 2020, 244, 118350, doi:
  • Suksiripattanapong, C.; Phetprapai, T.; Singsang, W.; Phetchuay, C.; Thumrongvut, J.; Tabyang, W. Utilization of recycled plastic waste in fiber reinforced concrete for eco-friendly footpath and pavement applications. Sustainability 2022, 14, 6839, doi:
  • Abousnina, R.; Premasiri, S.; Anise, V.; Lokuge, W.; Vimonsatit, V.; Ferdous, W.; Alajarmeh, O. Mechanical properties of macro polypropylene fibre-reinforced concrete. Polymers (Basel). 2021, 13, 4112. doi:
  • Wu, C.; Zhang, C.; Li, J.; Wang, X.; Jiang, W.; Yang, S.; Wang, W. A sustainable low-carbon pervious concrete using modified coal gangue aggregates based on ITZ enhancement. Clean. Prod. 2022, 377, 134310
  • Tennis, P.D.; Leming, M.L.; Akers, D.J. Pervious concrete pavements. Portland Cement Association. Illinois, Natl. Ready Mix. Concr. Assoc. Silver Spring, Maryl. 2004.
  • Pils, S.E.; Oliveira, P.; Regoso, F.; Paulon, V.A.; Costella, M.F. Pervious concrete: study of dosage and polypropylene fibers addiction. IBRACON Estruturas e Mater. 2019, 12, 101–121.
  • Latifi, M.R.; Biricik, Ö.; Mardani Aghabaglou, A. Effect of the addition of polypropylene fiber on concrete properties. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 2022, 36, 345–369, doi:
  • Al‐Rousan, R. Influence of polypropylene fibers on the flexural behavior of reinforced concrete slabs with different opening shapes and sizes. Concr. 2017, 18, 986–999, doi:
  • Kizilkanat, A.B.; Kabay, N.; Akyüncü, V.; Chowdhury, S.; Akça, A.H. Mechanical properties and fracture behavior of basalt and glass fiber reinforced concrete: An experimental study. Build. Mater. 2015, 100, 218–224, doi:
  • Madhavi, T.C.; Raju, L.S.; Mathur, D. Polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete-a review. J. Emerg. Technol. Adv. Eng. 2014, 4, 114–118.
  • Altalabani, D.; Bzeni, D.K.H.; Linsel, S. Mechanical properties and load deflection relationship of polypropylene fiber reinforced self-compacting lightweight concrete. Build. Mater. 2020, 252, 119084, doi:
  • Rashid, M.A.; Mansur, M.A. Reinforced high-strength concrete beams in flexure. ACI Struct. J. 2005, 102, 462, doi:10.14359/14418
  • Oudah, F.; El-Hacha, R. A new ductility model of reinforced concrete beams strengthened using fiber reinforced polymer reinforcement. Part B Eng. 2012, 43, 3338–3347.
  • Pam, H.J.; Kwan, A.K.H.; Islam, M.S. Flexural strength and ductility of reinforced normal-and high-strength concrete beams. Inst. Civ. Eng. Build. 2001, 146, 381–389, doi:
  • Conforti, A.; Minelli, F.; Tinini, A.; Plizzari, G.A. Influence of polypropylene fibre reinforcement and width-to-effective depth ratio in wide-shallow beams. Struct. 2015, 88, 12–21.
  • Sun, M.; Zhu, J.; Li, N.; Fu, C.C. Experimental research and finite element analysis on mechanical property of SFRC T-beam. Civ. Eng. 2017, 2017, doi:
  • Hilles, M.M.; Ziara, M.M. Mechanical behavior of high strength concrete reinforced with glass fiber. Sci. Technol. an Int. J. 2019, 22, 920–928, doi:
  • Awwad, E.; Mabsout, M.; Hamad, B.; Farran, M.T.; Khatib, H. Studies on fiber-reinforced concrete using industrial hemp fibers. Build. Mater. 2012, 35, 710–717, doi:
  • Žirgulis, G.; Švec, O.; Geiker, M.R.; Cwirzen, A.; Kanstad, T. Influence of reinforcing bar layout on fibre orientation and distribution in slabs cast from fibre‐reinforced self‐compacting concrete (FRSCC). Concr. 2016, 17, 245–256, doi: