A novel design for compact microstrip bandpass filter design is presented for use in the application of modern wireless communication systems. The proposed filter structure is composed of two fractal-based microstrip resonators. The structure of each resonator is in the form of the Peano fractal curve geometry. Two microstrip single-mode resonators with structures based on the 2nd Peano fractal-shaped geometries have been modeled at a design frequency of 2.4 GHz. The resulting filter structures based on these resonators, show considerable size reduction compared with the other microstrip bandpass filters based on other space-filling geometries designed at the same frequency. The performance of the resulting filter structures has been evaluated using a method of moments (MoM) based software package, Microwave Office 2009, from Advanced Wave Research Inc. Results show that the proposed filter structures possess good return loss and transmission responses besides the size reduction gained, making them suitable for use in a wide variety of wireless communication applications. Furthermore, performance responses show that the new resonator has less tendency to support the higher harmonics.